Assessment Resources

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Institute for Law Teaching and Learning website Thanks to committee member Lisa Bradley who recommended this site, which has an assessment page that provides sample rubrics and links to other resources on assessment. (

University of Connecticut’s “Assessment” webpage Though not targeted to law schools, this site provides a wealth of information regarding assessment theory and program design. In particular, the website provides links to numerous books and articles (beyond those summarized below on this page), reports, news stories, etc. You can access these by clicking on the “Resources/Related Sites” link across the top, and the “References” link along the left-hand side. The website also provides sample assessment plans and related documents, which you can access by clicking the various other links along the left-hand side. (

IUPUI Assessment WebsiteThe Planning & Institutional Improvement Office at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has a website dedicated to assessment that is similar to the University of Connecticut site summarized above. (

Conferences and Presentations

2014 Institute for Law Teaching and Learning Conference-Assessment Across the Curriculum A full description of the conference and the presentations can be found at: (

Assessment Institute Conferences. Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has a Planning & Institutional Improvement Office, which holds a national conference each year called the Assessment Institute. The brochures for the conferences from 1999 through 2012, and the handouts for the 2012 conference, can be found at [1]

2011 AALS Assessment Presentation- How LRW Faculty Can Contribute to Their Law School's Assessment Plan. A webpage supporting this presentation lists helpful resources and the PowerPoint used for the presentation on this topic by David Thomson, Sophie Sparrow, and Lori Shaw is at: [2]

2011 Institute for Law Teaching and Learning Conference-Engaging and Assessing Our Students. A description of all presentations and the handouts provided at each can be found at: [3]

2009 Conference-- Legal Education at the Crossroads, v. 3 – A Conference on Assessment. This conference at University of Denver, Sturm College of Law responds to the calls for better methods of student, teaching, and institutional assessment made in the Carnegie Report, Sullivan, et al., Educating Lawyers: Preparation for the Profession of Law (2007) and in Stuckey et al., Best Practices for Legal Education (2007). The conference will be particularly useful for law teachers and deans interested or engaged in developing and implementing outcomes measures. Program and videos of the sessions can be accessed at: [4]

Stetson Webinars Professor Kirsten Davis, director of the legal writing program at Stetson University College of Law, has announced that school's innovative series of "virtual legal writing conferences," presented as free webinars for law school faculty.

The first in the series addresses the topic, "Outcomes and Assessments." Here's the program description:

In response to the Carnegie Report and increased focus by the ABA and regional accrediting agencies on student outcomes and their assessment, law schools across the country are exploring how to re-focus curriculum on student learning outcomes and how to assess those outcomes. This session will explore how to develop outcomes, and how to incorporate them into the first year legal writing curriculum, at the program level and the course level. The session will also provide ideas about developing assessment tools that are useful to students and faculty to determine whether students are meeting the expected outcomes.

Another webinar on Outcomes and Assessments was taped in October 2010.

The webinars are available for replay on Stetson's Advocacy Resource Center, at, then choose "Centers," then "Advocacy." Register and log in, and then choose "Project for Excellence in Legal Communication: Virtual Legal Writing Conferences."


Mary J. Allen, Assessing Academic Programs in Higher Education (Anker Publg. 2004).

Thomas A. Angelo et al., Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers (2d ed., Jossey-Bass 1993).

Trudy W. Banta (editor), Hallmarks of Effective Outcomes Assessment: Assessment Update Collections (Jossey-Bass 2004).

Marilee J. Bresciani, Outcomes-based Academic and Co-Curricular Program Review: A Compilation of Institutional Good Practices (Stylus 2006).

Amy Driscoll et al., Developing Outcomes-Based Assessment for Learner-centered Education: A Faculty Introduction (Stylus 2007).

Mary E. Huba & Jann E. Freed, Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning (Allyn & Bacon 2000)

Michael F. Middaugh, Planning and Assessment in Higher Education: Demonstrating Institutional Effectiveness (Jossey-Bass 2010).

Gregory S. Munro, Outcomes Assessment for Law Schools (Inst. L. Sch. Teaching 2000).Thanks to committee member Lisa Bradley who recommended Greg Munro's book on Outcomes Assessment for Law Schools. Greg and the Institute for Teaching & Learning gave us permission to post the site below for the book:


Roy Stuckey et al., Best Practices for Legal Education: A Vision and a Road Map (Clin. Leg. Educ. Assn. 2007).

William M. Sullivan et al., Educating Lawyers: Preparation for the Profession of Law (Jossey-Bass 2007).

Linda Suskie, Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide (2d ed., Jossey-Bass 2009).

Marilla Svinicki & Wilbert J. McKeachie, McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers (13th ed., Wadsworth Cengage Learning 2011)

Barbara E. Walvoord, Assessment Clear and Simple: A Practical Guide for Institutions, Departments, and General Education (2d ed., Jossey-Bass 2010).


This 2010 issue of Second Draft (Volume 24, No. 3) is devoted to the topic of assessments and has some very helpful articles: [6]

This 2012 issue of William Mitchell Law Review (Volume 38, Issue 3) is dedicated to “Contemporary Issues in Outcomes-Based Legal Education”: [7]


The following articles addressing outcome assessment are separated into two categories: legal research and writing related, and law school generally. Within each category, the articles are organized by year published (the most recent first), and within each year alphabetically by author. We have not read all articles but have organized them based on their title or journal. If you feel an article is in the wrong category, please let us know.

Legal Research & Writing

John Schunk, Indirectly Assessing Writing and Analysis Skills in a First-Year Legal Writing Course, 40 So. Univ. L. Rev. 47 (2012)

David J. Herring & Collin Lynch, Teaching Skills of Legal Analysis: Does the Emperor Have Any Clothes?, Univ. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series (2011) [8].

Beverly P. Jennison, Saving the LRW Professor: Using Rubrics in the Teaching of Legal Writing to Assist in Grading Writing Assignments by Section and Provide More Effective Assessment in Less Time, 80 UMKC L. Rev. 353 (2011).

Susan Hanley Duncan, The New Accreditation Standards Are Coming to a Law School Near You—What You Need to Know About Learning Outcomes & Assessment, 16 Leg. Writing 605 (2010).

Cassandra L. Hill & Katherine T. Vudekin, Now I See: Redefining the Post-Grade Conference as Process and Substance Assessment, 54 Howard L. J. 1 (2010).

Victoria L. VanZandt, Creating Assessment Plans for Introductory Legal Research and Writing Courses, 16 Leg. Writing 313 (2010).

Simon Canick, Legal Research Assessment, 28 Legal Reference Servs. Quarterly 201 (2009).

Roger J. Klurfeld & Steven Placek, Rhetorical Judgments: Using Holistic Assessment to Improve the Quality of Administrative Decisions, 5 J. Ass’n Legal Writing Directors 58 (2008).

Susan H. Kosse & David Ritchie, Assessing the Writing Skills of New Law Graduates: A Comparison of the Attitudes of Judges, Practitioners, and Legal Writing Professors, 53 J. Legal Ed. 80 (2003).

Gregory S. Munro, How Do We Know if We Are Achieving Our Goals?: Strategies for Assessing the Outcome of Curricular Innovation, 1 J. Ass’n Legal Writing Directors 229 (2002).

Steven J. Johansen, “What Were You Thinking?”: Using Annotated Portfolios to Improve Student Assessment, 4 Legal Writing: J. Legal Writing Inst. 123 (1998).


Cassandra L. Hill, The Elephant in the Law School Assessment Room: The Role of Student Responsibility and Motivating Our Students to Learn, 56 Howard L. J. ___ (forthcoming 2013).

Herbert N. Ramy, Moving Students from Hearing and Forgetting to Doing and Understanding: A Manual for Assessment in Law School, 41 Cap. U. L. Rev. (forthcoming 2013) [9].

John O. Sonsteng, Rate Law Professors: An Objective and Practical Method for Evaluating Teaching and Learning Tools in Law School Courses, Wm. Mitchell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2012-14, forthcoming 2013). [10].

Gregory M. Duhl, Equipping Our Lawyers: Mitchell’s Outcomes-Based Approach to Legal Education, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 906 (2012).

Steven I. Friedland, Outcomes and the Ownership Conception of Law School Courses, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 947 (2012).

Andrea Susnir Funk & Kelley M. Mauerman, Starting from the Top: Using a Capstone Course to Begin Program Assessment in Legal Education, 37 Okla. City U. L. Rev. (2012).

Neil W. Hamilton, Effectiveness Requires Listening: How to Assess and Improve Listening Skills, 13 Fla. Coastal L. Rev. 145 (2012)

David J. Herring & Collin Lynch, Enhancing Traditional Law Teaching to Produce Measurable Gains, Univ. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series (June 2012) [11]

Stefan H. Krieger & Serge A. Martinez, Performance Isn’t Everything: The Importance of Conceptual Competence in Outcome Assessment of Experiential Learning, 19 Clinical L. Rev. 251 (2012).

Mary A. Lynch, An Evaluation of Ten Concerns About Using Outcomes in Legal Education, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 976 (2012).

Anthony Niedwiecki, Teaching for Lifelong Learning: Improving the Metacognitive Skills of Law Students through More Effective Formative Assessment Techniques, 40 Cap. U. L. Rev. 149 (2012).

Carolyn Plumb, Lessons for Legal Education From the Engineering Profession’s Experience with Outcomes-Based Accreditation, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1017 (2012).

Jeremy Potter, Legal Education and Moneyball: The Art of Winning the Assessment Game, 11 Conn. Pub. Int. L.J. 327 (2012).

Carol Springer Sargent & Andrea A. Curcio, Empirical Evidence that Formative Assessments Improve Final Exams, 61 J. Legal Educ. 379 (2012).

Sophie M. Sparrow, Can They Work Well on a Team? Assessing Students’ Collaborative Skills, 38 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 1162 (2012).

Janet W. Fisher, Putting Students at the Center of the Legal Education: How an Emphasis on Outcome Measures in the ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools Might Transform the Educational Experience of Law Students, 35 S. Ill. U. L.J. 225 (2011).

Cassandra L. Hill, Peer Editing: A Comprehensive Pedagogical Approach to Maximize Assessment Opportunities, Integrate Collaborative Learning, and Achieve Desired Outcomes, 13 Nevada L. J. 101 (2011).

Lori A. Roberts, Assessing Ourselves: Confirming Assumptions and Improving Student Learning by Efficiently and Fearlessly Assessing Student Learning Outcomes, 3 Drexel L. Rev. 457 (2011).

Ann Marie Cavazos, The Journey Toward Excellence in Clinical Legal Education: Developing, Utilizing and Evaluating Methodologies for Determining and Assessing the Effectiveness of Student Learning Outcomes, 40 Sw. L. Rev. 1 (2010).

Mary Crossley & Lu-in Wang, Learning by Doing: An Experience with Outcomes Assessment, 41 U. Toledo L. Rev. 269 (2010).

Rogelio A. Lasso, Is Our Students Learning? Using Assessments to Measure and Improve Law School Learning and Performance, 15 Barry L. Rev. 73 (2010).

Lisa T. McElroy & Christine N. Coughlin, Failure is not an Option: An Essay on What Legal Educators Can Learn from NASA’s Signature Pedagogies to Improve Student Outcomes, 75 J. Air L. & Com. 503 (2010).

Carol L. Wallinger, Autonomy Support 101: How Using Proven Autonomy Support Techniques Can Increase Law Student Autonomy, Engender Hope, and Improve Outcomes, 48 Duq. L. Rev. 385 (2010).

Emily Zimmerman, What Do Law Students Want?: The Missing Piece of the Assessment Puzzle, 42 Rutgers L.J. 1 (2010).

Andrea W. Curcio, Assessing Differently and Using Empirical Studies to See if it Makes a Difference: Can Law Schools do it Better?, 27 Quinnipiac L. Rev. 899 (2009).

Andrea W. Curcio, Moving in the Direction of Best Practices and the Carnegie Report: Reflections on Using Multiple Assessments in a Large-Section Doctrinal Course, 19 Widener L.J. 159 (2009).

Neil Hamilton, Assessing Professionalism: Measuring Progress in the Formation of an Ethical Professional Identity, 5 U. St. Thomas L.J. 470 (2008)

Julie M. Spanbauer, Lost in Translation in the Law School Curriculum: Assessing Required Coursework in LLM Programs for International Students, 35 Int’l J. Legal Info. 396 (2007).

Roy Stuckey, Teaching With Purpose: Defining and Achieving Desired Outcomes in Clinical Law Courses, 13 Clinical L. Rev. 807 (2007).

Lorenzo A. Trujillo, The Relationship Between Law School and the Bar Exam: A Look at Assessment and Student Success, 78 U. Colo. L. Rev. 69 (2007).

Karen Barton, Valuing What Clients Think: Standardized Clients and the Assessment of Communicative Competence, 13 Clinical L. Rev. 1 (2006).

Jacline R. Evered, “Arming the Graduate for Professional Battle: No Place for the Weak Skilled” Teaching and Assessing a Course to Develop Multi-Functioning Lawyers, 43 Brandeis L.J. 325 (2005).

Ron M. Aizen, Four Ways to Better 1L Assessments, 54 Duke L.J. 765 (2004).

Erica Moeser, Rethinking Assessments and Alternatives to Assessments From the Perspective of a Bar Examiner, 20 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 1051 (2004).

Charles B. Sheppard, The Grading Process: Taking a Multidimensional, “Non-Curved” Approach to the Measurement of a First-Year Law Student’s Level of Proficiency, 30 W. St. U. L. Rev. 177 (2003).

Sam Sue, Assessing the MacCrate Skills: Developing a Good Survey, 23 Pace L. Rev. 657 (2003).

Kristin B. Gerdy, Teacher, Coach, Cheerleader, and Judge: Promoting Learning Through Learner-Centered Assessment, 94 Law Libr. J. 59 (2002).

Dennis R. Honabach, Precision Teaching in Law School: An Essay in Support of Student-Centered Teaching and Assessment, 34 U. Tol. L. Rev. 95 (2002).

Greg Sergienko, New Modes of Assessment, 38 San Diego L. Rev. 463 (2001).

Stella L. Smetanka, The Multi-State Performance Test: A Measure of Law Schools’ Competence to Prepare Lawyers, 62 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 747 (2001).

Deborah A. Schmedemann & Christina Kunz,A Decade of Developments in Performance–Based Legal Education, 21 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 673 (1996).

Other Resources

ABA's 2008 Report of the Outcome Measures Committee (